Strengths:

1. A number of reliable academic sources, i.e., journal articles, are used to back up the claims made by the writer of this article.
2. The writer has critically evaluated a number of Legal English websites by not simply describing the content of the websites, but discussing their strengths and weaknesses in some detail.
3. The writer has made an attempt to establish cohesion in the article by using some signposting expressions and cohesive devices, e.g., the first, the second, etc.
4. All sources cited in the article are included in the reference list although there are some inconsistencies in the use of the APA style conventions.

Weaknesses:

1. The introductory paragraph of the article does not contain sufficient background information for the audience and does not clearly outline the purpose and scope of the article.
2. Some paragraphs in the article appear incomplete and underdeveloped because they contain of only two or three sentences and lack in research-based evidence.
3. The writer has used too many direct quotations in the article, which should have been either paraphrased or summarised instead.
4. The writer has introduced a number of websites in the body of the article, but failed to reference them accurately. Instead of putting hyperlinks in text, they should give the names of the website, and put all other relevant referencing details including the hyperlinks in the references at the end of the article.

Professional Article One:

Barriers in using internet materials in developing countries

Legal English is one branch of ESP and it differs from English for Academic purposes with the addition of certain terms and linguistic patterns governing the teaching of legal language (put your Wikipedia citation here). In other words, Legal English’s specialized use of vocabulary, phrase and syntax helps a lawyer to understand another lawyer.

Historically, there have been many attempts to integrate ICT, namely using internet, into language classes step-by-step but there are still barriers in the implementation of ICT into language teaching classes due to “the lack of teachers’ confidence in technology, lack of time to design the technology integrated tasks and unwillingness to change” (Ertmer, 1999). He divides the barriers into first –order and second-order barriers according to the relationship of ICT into a teacher directly and indirectly. The first order barriers include the matters surrounding the issues of the technical supply, insufficient resources and lack of training. The second order barriers include the teacher connected ICT integration issues such as negative beliefs towards the technical development, teacher-student roles and assessment challenges. Bingimlas K. believes that “the presence of all components increases the likelihood of excellent integration of ICT in learning and teaching opportunities” (Bingimlas,2009). But in some cases, “although the school was highly resourced with ICT tools and facilities, barriers such as teachers’ hesitancy in integrating ICT, amount of workload, lack of time, teaching experience and age and lack of ICT skills were impeding the teachers to incorporate ICT in their teaching.” ( Raman.K., 2011).

The barriers of insufficient technological provision, poor ICT teacher trainings, lack of confidence and resistance to the digital changes are still considered the main challenges in ICT integration to education. However, there are also barriers of copyright, registration terms, downloading conditions and level appropriateness frequently faced by the legal English teachers of non-native speakers of English.

In my research, I have found the following barriers after thoroughly browsing the websites offering their materials for legal English Classes:

1. The first barrier in taking the materials from the internet is using wrong key words in the search engine. In most cases the key words connected with the law leads to the materials specially designed for the sale of legal essays to law students, not legal English teachers. For example, http://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/contract-law/english-legal-system-is-from-four-sources-contract-law-essay.php is very user-friendly website with the samples of the essays and free dissertation samples, problem questions answers on legal topics. But there are two different problems: firstly, the website is not intended to assist the legal English teacher. It is giving materials for the law students where the focus on the language learning skills for non-native speakers are beyond the attention and the discussion of the legal matter is prioritized.
2. Secondly, even if the Legal English teacher of Uzbekistan decides to use the materials from this website, it can bring more confusion than contributions due to the differences in the British legal system and Uzbek legal system.
3. Registration to the website requires a certain amount of payment. The websites such as https://www.legalenglishacademy.com, http://oxfordlawinternational.co.uk, http://www.learnenglish4law.com, http://www.toleslegal.com offer customized services and the fee is required for the usage of materials. While the paying the registration fee is not an issue, the limited variety in the payment method makes the problem arise. The most common accepted ways of payment are international cards such as MasterCard and Visa Card, but the cards of national types are not included to the list of the card types.
4. The materials are legally protected and cannot be downloaded. The PDF form of the activities and exercises, the video materials and listening audio materials are legally protected and the illegal usage of the materials are considered as violation of copyright.
5. There are many interesting live webinars and online video lessons offered on the websites related to legal topics, especially on http://www.british-legal-centre.com/, but the time of the broadcast is different from Uzbekistan’s time. The time zone of GMT is 4 hours later than Tashkent time and unfortunately it is impossible to record or download the video material.
6. While there are some websites which do not require any fee and any registration, the quality of their offering materials is not high. In most cases the free access websites are not constantly updated and monitored in updating actions.
7. Even there are frequently updated official websites of legal textbook and material designing companies, all the materials can be used in online mode. For example, on https://www.translegal.com/lets/teacher-training-resources the resources are very up-to-date and well-organized, but they cannot be played offline.
8. The limited days of free usage from the website resources make the Legal Teacher feel rushed in downloading the materials. For example, for the http://www.onestopenglish.com/esp/law/ although the registration is needed, any user can enjoy the first 30-days for free. In fact, 30 days are also a good opportunity to collect materials, but for further usage again the payment barrier comes up.
9. Not having the answer key discourages the non-native LE teacher from the confident usage of materials in English when the topic is specific and about law terminology. The learners may not be fluent in English but they may have strong background knowledge about the legal topic by reading books in their native language or have heard in the lectures of the content teachers. That’s why, not having the answer key is another reason for not choosing a material from the internet.
The insufficiency of authentic materials pushes the ESP teachers to design the tasks on their own. The material design process can be more purposeful only the ESP teachers take into consideration the needs of the learners and will be able to use the technical jargon relevant to student’s specialization field ( Kiran, 2013).
With all these obstacles, should a teacher try to use internet materials? What happens if an ESP teacher uses more internet sources in the classes instead of traditional texts of the course books? Askarani Arani J, a faculty member of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, gave a very interesting evaluation of internet chosen material in a medical university. The results between a group where only textbook was used and a group where internet materials were used show that the language acquisition of non-native speakers in ESP classes can be improved with the help of authentic internet materials within a short time (Askarani, 2004).

While English for Academic Purposes and English as a Second Language teaching and learning have a myriad of internet resources, including all language skills developing activity packages, the legal English part of English language education lacks the free access on the internet in terms of sources for the non-native speakers of English. In other words, legal English teachers still face a number of obstacles in using materials from internet websites including barriers of the copyright, registration and payment requirements, answer key availability, the difference in the legal systems . In the future, research on how to design legal English materials for non-native speakers of English may lead to further solutions, but for now, there are some websites that maybe useful for teachers.

References

Askarani, A. (2004). The effect of ICT- based teaching method on medical students’ ESP learning. Journal of Medical Education, 4 (2), 81-83.
Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). “Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments”, a review of the literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 5(3), 235-245.
Ertmer, P. (1999). Addressing first and second-order barriers to change: strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 47(4), 47-61
Kiran, P. (2013). Challenges to an ESP Teacher. The Journal for ESL teachers and learners, 11, 200-205.
Raman, K., Yamat, H. (2011). Barriers Teachers Face in Integrating ICT During English Lessons: A Case Study. The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 2 (3), 11-19.
http://british-legal-centre.com/
http://lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/contract-law/english-legal-system-is-from-four-sources-contract-law-essay.php
https://legalenglishacademy.com/
http://onestopenglish.com/esp/law/
http://oxfordlawinternational.co.uk
http://www.toleslegal.com
http://translegal.com/lets/teacher-training-resources

http://learnenglish4law.com/

Professional Article One:

Barriers in using internetIssue No. 1: The noun internet should be spelled with a capital “I”. materials in developing countries

Legend:
Idea Development Academic Style Grammatical Accuracy Lexical Appropriacy Source Use Macrostructure Spelling Accuracy Punctuation Accuracy

Legal English is one branch ofIssue No. 2: This introductory paragraph is underdeveloped because it consists of only two sentences. Short underdeveloped paragraphs should be avoided in academic writing. ESPIssue No. 3: The term ESP needs to be defined when it is mentioned for the first time in the essay. and it differs from English for Academic purposesIssue No. 4: The abbreviation for English for Academic Purposes should be given in parenthesis for consistency.
Issue No. 5: The word purposes in the phrase English for Academic Purposes needs to be capitalised because it is a title which requires all keywords to be capitalised.
with the addition of certain terms and linguistic patterns governing the teaching of legal language (put your Wikipedia citation hereIssue No. 6: The citation is missing and needs to be included.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
Issue No. 7: Wikipedia is not a reliable source and should be avoided in academic writing.
). In other words, Legal English’s specialized use of vocabulary, phraseIssue No. 8: The noun phrase seems redundant in this sentence because you have already mentioned vocabulary which is synonymous with phrase.
Click here for Redundancy issue
and syntax helps a lawyer to understand another lawyer.

Historically, there have been many attempts to integrate ICTIssue No. 9: The term ICT needs to be defined when it is mentioned for the first time in the essay., namely using internetIssue No. 10: The definite article the is needed before the noun Internet.
Click here for Definite Article issue
Issue No.
11: The noun internet should be spelled with a capital “I”.
, into language classes step-by-step but there are still barriers in the implementation of ICT into language teaching classes due to “the lack of teachers’ confidence in technology, lack of time to design the technology integrated tasks and unwillingness to change” (Ertmer, 1999). HeIssue No. 12: The neutral noun phrase the researcher should be used instead of the gender-specific pronoun he, particularly if you are not sure about the gender of the person you are referring to.
Click here for Gendered Language issue
divides the barriers intoIssue No. 13: The preposition with is needed instead of the preposition into after the noun relationship. first –order and second-order barriers according to the relationship of ICT into a teacher directly and indirectly. The first order barriers include the matters surrounding the issuesIssue No. 14: The phrase surrounding the issues is redundant in this sentence.
Click here for Redundancy issue
of theIssue No. 15: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
technical supply, insufficient resources and lack of training. The second order barriers include the teacher connected ICT integration issues such as negative beliefs towards the technical development, teacher-student roles and assessment challenges. Bingimlas KIssue No. 16: No first name initials of the authors should appear in text.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
. believes that “the presence of all components increases the likelihood of excellent integration of ICT in learning and teaching opportunities” (BingimlasIssue No. 17: The author’s last name should not appear twice in the citation. It has already been mentioned at the beginning of the sentence; therefore, it should be avoided at the end of the sentence.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
,2009). ButIssue No. 18: The conjunction But should be avoided at the beginning of the sentence.
Issue No. 19: The comma is needed after the conjunction However at the beginning of the sentence.
Click here for Comma issue
in some cases, “although the school was highly resourced with ICT tools and facilities, barriers such as teachers’ hesitancy in integrating ICT, amount of workload, lack of time, teaching experience and age and lack of ICT skills were impeding the teachers to incorporate ICT in their teaching.Issue No. 20: Too many direct quotations should be avoided in academic writing. The writer should have considered paraphrasing or summarising some of the evidence they have introduced in the paragraph.
Click here for Evidence issue
” ( Raman.K.Issue No. 21: No first name initials of the authors should appear in text.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
, 2011).Issue No. 22: The paragraph should not end with a direct quotation. The writer should have included some comments on or discussion of the quotation at the end of the paragraph.

The barriers of insufficient technological provision, poor ICT teacher trainings, lack of confidence and resistance toIssue No. 23: The preposition into should be used instead of the preposition to after the noun integration. the digital changes are still considered the main challenges in ICT integrationIssue No. 24: It should be stated more clearly- integration by whom? to education.Issue No. 25: Some research-evidence should have been integrated in this paragraph.
Click here for Evidence issue
However, there are also barriers of copyright, registration terms, downloading conditions and level appropriateness frequently faced by the legalIssue No. 26: The term legal English should have capital “L” in the adjective Legal. English teachers of non-native speakers of English.

In my research, I have found the following barriers after thoroughly browsing the websites offering their materials for legal English Classes:

1. The first barrier in taking the materials from the internetIssue No. 27: The noun internet should be spelled with a capital “I”. is using wrong key words in the search engine. In most cases the key words connected with the law leads to the materials specially designed for the sale of legal essays to law students, not legal English teachers. For example, http://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/contract-law/english-legal-system-is-from-four-sources-contract-law-essay.phpIssue No. 28: Instead of giving the website link in text, the name of the website should be used. The link should appear in the References section at the end of the article.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
is very user-friendly websiteIssue No. 29: The indefinite article a is needed before a singular noun phrase in this sentence.
Click here for Indefinite Article issue
with the samples of the essays and free dissertation samples, problem questions answers on legal topics. ButIssue No. 30: The conjunction But should be avoided at the beginning of the sentence. there are two different problems: firstly, the website is not intended to assist the legal English teacher.Issue No. 31: Two different problems are mentioned but only one problem is being described. The writer needs to be precise about the second problem.
Click here for Evidence issue
It is giving materials for the law students where the focus on the language learning skills for non-native speakers are beyond the attention and the discussion of the legal matter is prioritized.Issue No. 32: It is not entirely clear what the writer means in this sentence.
2. Secondly, even if theIssue No. 33: The indefinite article a is needed before a singular noun phrase in this sentence.
Click here for Indefinite Article issue
Legal English teacher ofIssue No. 34: The preposition in needs to be used instead of the preposition of in this sentence. Uzbekistan decides to use the materials from this website, it canIssue No. 35: The hedging expression may is more appropriate to use in this sentence than the expression can.
Click here for Hedging issue
bring more confusion than contributions due to the differences in the British legal systemIssue No. 36: The phrase legal system is redundant here because it appears at the end of the sentence.
Issue No. 37: The plural form systems should be used to indicate the comparison between the two systems.
Click here for Redundancy issue
and Uzbek legal system.
3. Registration toIssue No. 38: The preposition on should be used instead of the preposition to after the noun registration. the website requires a certain amount of payment. The websites such as https://www.legalenglishacademy.comIssue No. 39: This website does not seem to exist. The link needs to be checked and if non-existent, deleted., http://oxfordlawinternational.co.ukIssue No. 40: This website link has expired and needs to be replaced with a different link., http://www.learnenglish4law.comIssue No. 41: Instead of giving the website link in text, the name of the website should be used. The link should appear in the References section at the end of the article.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
, http://www.toleslegal.comIssue No. 42: Instead of giving the website link in text, the name of the website should be used. The link should appear in the References section at the end of the article. offer customized services andIssue No. 43: The comma needs to be used before the conjunction and in a compound sentence.
Click here for Comma issue
theIssue No. 44: The indefinite article a is needed instead of the definite article the in this sentence.
Click here for Indefinite Article issue
fee is required for the usage of materials. While theIssue No. 45: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
paying the registration fee is not an issue, the limited variety in theIssue No. 46: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
payment methodIssue No. 47: The plural form of the noun methods should be used in the noun phrase payment methods.
Issue No. 48: The claim needs to be mitigated by using a hedging expression may.
Click here for Hedging issue
makes the problem ariseIssue No. 49: A more concise phrase be a problem should be used instead of a wordy phrase make a problem arise.. The most commonIssue No. 50: The adverb commonly should be used instead of the adjective common in this sentence. accepted waysIssue No. 51: The noun methods is a more appropriate in this context than the noun ways. of payment are international cards such as MasterCard and Visa CardIssue No. 52: The name of the card is Visa rather than Visa Card., but the cards of national typesIssue No. 53: The word order in this sentence needs to be changed. are not included toIssue No. 54: The preposition in needs to be used instead of the preposition to in this sentence. the list of the card types.
4. The materials are legally protected and cannot be downloaded. The PDF form of the activities and exercises, the video materials and listening audio materials are legally protected and the illegal usage of the materials areIssue No. 55: The singular form of the auxiliary verb to be needs to be used in order to establish subject-verb agreement in the sentence. considered as violation of copyright.
5. There are many interesting live webinars and online video lessons offered on the websites related to legal topics, especially on http://www.british-legal-centre.com/Issue No. 56: Instead of giving the website link in text, the name of the website should be used. The link should appear in the References section at the end of the article.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
, but the time of the broadcast is different from Uzbekistan’s time. The time zone of GMT is 4Issue No. 57: The numbers up to number ten should be spelled out in words. hours later than Tashkent time and unfortunatelyIssue No. 58: The comma needs to be used to set off the interrupter phrase in the middle of the sentence. it is impossible to record or download theIssue No. 59: The pronoun this should be used instead of the definite article the to make it more precise which video material is being talked about in the sentence.
Click here for Comma issue
video material.
6. While there are some websites which do not require any fee andIssue No. 60: The conjunction or needs to be used instead of the conjunction and in this sentence. anyIssue No. 61: The pronoun any should not be used in this sentence. registration, the quality of their offering materialsIssue No. 62: The structure of the sentence needs some revision. is not high. In most casesIssue No. 63: The comma needs to be used after the introductory phrase at the beginning of the sentence.
Click here for Comma issue
the free access websites are not constantly updated and monitored in updating actionsIssue No. 64: The phrase and monitored in updating actions is redundant in this sentence.
Click here for Redundancy issue
.
7. EvenIssue No. 65: The conjunction Although should be used at the beginning of this sentence. there are frequently updated official websites of legal textbook and material designing companies, all the materials can be used in online mode. For example, on Issue No. 66: The noun phrase the website is needed before the actual name of the website.
Issue No. 67: The comma needs to be used after the introductory phrase at the beginning of the sentence.
Click here for Comma issue
https://www.translegal.com/lets/teacher-training-resourcesIssue No. 68: Instead of giving the website link in text, the name of the website should be used. The link should appear in the References section at the end of the article.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
the resources are very up-to-date and well-organized, but they cannot be playedIssue No. 69: The verb used is more appropriate in this context than the verb played. offline.
8. The limited days of free usage fromIssue No. 70: The preposition of should be used instead of the preposition from in this sentence. theIssue No. 71: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
website resources make the Legal Teacher feel rushed in downloading the materials. For example, for the http://www.onestopenglish.com/esp/law/Issue No. 73: Instead of giving the website link in text, the name of the website should be used. The link should appear in the References section at the end of the article.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
although the registration is needed, any user can enjoy the first 30-days for free. In fact, 30 daysIssue No. 74: The definite article the is needed before the noun phrase 30 days.
Click here for Definite Article issue
Issue No. 75: The statement needs to be made more precise by adding a phrase of free usage.
areIssue No. 76: The singular form of the auxiliary verb to be needs to be used in order to establish subject-verb agreement in the sentence. also a good opportunity to collect materials, but for further usageIssue No. 77: The prepositional phrase for further usage in the middle of the sentence needs to be set off with a comma. again the payment barrier comes up.
9. Not having the answer key discourages the non-native LEIssue No. 78: The term Legal English should have been abbreviated when it was mentioned in the article for the first time. teacher from the confident usage of materials in EnglishIssue No. 79: The word especially needs to be added for stronger emphasis in this sentence.
Issue No. 80: The comma needs to be used before especially in this sentence.
Click here for Comma issue
when the topic is specific and about law terminology. TheIssue No. 81: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
learners may not be fluent in English butIssue No. 82: The comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction but in a compound sentence.
Click here for Comma issue
they may haveIssue No. 83: The verb acquired needs to be added in this sentence. strong background knowledge about the legal topicIssue No. 84: The noun area is more appropriate in this context than the noun topic. by reading books in their native language or have heard Issue No. 85: The pronoun it needs to be added in this sentence. in the lectures of the content teachers. That’s whyIssue No. 86: The full form That is why should be used because contractions must be avoided in academic writing., not having the answer key is another reason for not choosing aIssue No. 87: No indefinite article a should be used before the noun material in this sentence.
Click here for Indefinite Article issue
material from the internetIssue No. 88: The noun internet should be spelled with a capital “I”..
The insufficiency of authentic materials pushes theIssue No. 89: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
ESP teachers to design theIssue No. 90: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
tasks on their own. The material design process can be more purposeful onlyIssue No. 91: The conjunction if needs to be used in the phrase only if in this sentence. the ESP teachersIssue No. 92: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
take into consideration the needs of theIssue No. 93: No definite article the should be used in this sentence.
Click here for Definite Article issue
learners and will be able toIssue No. 94: The present form of the verb to be should be used instead of the future form in this sentence.
Click here for Tense issue
use the technical jargonIssue No. 95: The noun terminology should be used instead of jargon in this sentence. relevant to student’s specialization fieldIssue No. 96: The word order needs to be changed in this sentence. ( Kiran, 2013).
With all these obstacles, should a teacher try to use internet materials?Issue No. 97: The use of rhetorical questions should be avoided in academic writing. What happens if an ESP teacher uses more internet sources in the classes instead of traditional texts of the course books? AskaraniIssue No. 98: The author’s last name should not appear twice in the citation. It has already been mentioned at the beginning of the sentence; therefore, it should be avoided at the end of the sentence.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
Arani JIssue No. 99: No first name and first name initial of the authors should appear in text.
Click here for In-text Citations issue
, a faculty member of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, gave a very interesting evaluation of internet chosen material in a medical university. The results between a group where only textbook was used and a group where internet materials were used show that the language acquisition of non-native speakers in ESP classes can be improved with the help of authentic internet materials within a short time (Askarani, 2004).

While English for Academic Purposes and English as a Second Language teaching and learning have a myriad of internet resources, including all language skills developing activity packages, the legalIssue No. 100: The term legal English should have capital “L” in the adjective Legal. English part of English language education lacks the free access on the internetIssue No. 101: The noun internet should be spelled with a capital “I”. in terms of sources for the non-native speakers of English. In other words, legalIssue No. 102: The term legal English should have capital “L” in the adjective Legal. English teachers still face a number of obstacles in using materials from internet websites including barriers of the copyright, registration and payment requirements, answer key availability, the differenceIssue No. 103: The conjunction and is needed before the last item in the list of items. in the legalIssue No. 104: The term legal English should have capital “L” in the adjective Legal. systems . In the future, research on how to design legal English materials for non-native speakers of English may lead to further solutions, but for now, there are some websites that maybeIssue No. 105: The word should be spelled as may be rather than maybe in this sentence. useful for teachers.

ReferencesIssue No. 106: A number of issues with the use of sources have been identified in this article: 1. The websites should have been referenced in accordance with the APA style conventions. The websites should have been integrated alphabetically along with other resources. 2. The writer should have been consistent with the use of sources. Firstly, some sources have all words capitalised in the title of the article, e.g., Kiran (2013) and Raman & Yamat (2011) while others have only the first word of the title capitalised, e.g., Bingimlas (2009) and Ertmer (1999). Secondly, some sources have all words in the name of the journal capitalised and italicised, e.g., Askarani (2004) and Bingimlas (2009) while others have only some words in the name of the journal capitalised and no italics used. 3. The volume of the journal needs to be italicised. The writer of this article used a number of journal articles as references but did not italicise any of the journal volumes. 4. For the sources that have two authors, the conjunction and or ampersand (&) needs to be used between the last names of the authors. One of the sources in this article has two authors, i.e., Raman, K., Yamat, H. (2011), but has a comma instead of the conjunction and between the authors’ names.

Askarani, A. (2004). The effect of ICT- based teaching method on medical students’ ESP learning. Journal of Medical Education, 4 (2), 81-83.
Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). “Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments”, a review of the literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 5(3), 235-245.
Ertmer, P. (1999). Addressing first and second-order barriers to change: strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 47(4), 47-61
Kiran, P. (2013). Challenges to an ESP Teacher. The Journal for ESL teachers and learners, 11, 200-205.
Raman, K., Yamat, H. (2011). Barriers Teachers Face in Integrating ICT During English Lessons: A Case Study. The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 2 (3), 11-19.
http://www.british-legal-centre.com/
http://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/contract-law/english-legal-system-is-from-four-sources-contract-law-essay.php
https://www.legalenglishacademy.com
http://www.onestopenglish.com/esp/law/
http://oxfordlawinternational.co.uk
http://www.toleslegal.com

Teacher Training Resources

http://learnenglish4law.com/

Activities:

Question 1:
Identify the main issue with the use of an in-text citation in the first paragraph of the article.

A: Wikipedia is usually not an appropriate source to use in academic writingCorrect: Wikipedia is not a reliable academic source and should be avoided in academic writing.

B: More than one citation should have been used in the paragraphIncorrect: This is not an issue in this paragraph because no citations are needed in the introductory paragraph of the article.

C: No quotation marks have been used around the citation from WikipediaIncorrect: This is not an issue because no direct quotation has been used in this paragraph, and only direct quotations require the use of quotation marks.

Question 2:
Which of the barriers in using Internet materials (out of the nine barriers described in the article) should the writer have expanded on more?

A: No. 2Correct: The writer should have been more precise when talking about the differences in the British and Uzbek legal systems.

B: No. 3Incorrect: This problem is clearly defined and illustrated in the article.

C: No. 7Incorrect: This problem is clearly defined and illustrated in the article.

Question 3:
Identify a common problem in the use of the citations by Bingimlas (2009) in paragraph 2 and Askarani (2004) in paragraph 15 of the article.

A: Neither of the citations contain pages numbersIncorrect: This is not a common problem. This might be an issue with only Bingimlas (2009) since this is a direct quotation containing specific information. When using direct quotations in academic writing, it is recommended that page numbers should be indicated.

B: In both cases, the author’s name is used twice, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of citationCorrect: This is a common problem identified in the use of these two in-text citations. The author’s name needs to appear only once in a citation, either at the beginning or at the end, but not both at the beginning and at the end.

C: Neither of the citations contain the essential details about the article including its title and the name of the journalIncorrect: This is not a problem. No details about the journal article need to appear in text. This information needs to be included only in the References.

Question 4:
Identify the problem, if any, with the organisation of the second paragraph in the article.

A: The paragraph contains only a limited number of direct quotationsIncorrect: The paragraph contains three direct quotations, which is a lot for a single paragraph. The writer should have paraphrased or summarised some of these quotations.

B: The paragraph has no major problems with its organisationIncorrect: The paragraph has a major issue with its organisation, specifically, it has no concluding sentence at the end of the paragraph.

C: The paragraph has no concluding sentenceCorrect: This is a problem with the organisation of the paragraph. It contains two direct quotations one immediately following the other at the end of the paragraph, and has no concluding sentence bringing the ideas presented together.